Section I of this article briefly reviews the law in Virginia and North Carolina. Section II examines, in detail, many of the strategies and tactics unions have utilized, both successfully and unsuccessfully, in Virginia and North Carolina. Section III discusses the overwhelming challenges that public-sector unions, despite their success, still face under the laws and political climate in hostile states. Finally, section IV offers a brief analysis of how unions in other states that prohibit or severely limit collective bargaining can emulate their successes and learn from their failures.
Ann C. Hodges & William Warwick, The Sheathed Sword: Public-Sector Union Efficacy in Non-Bargaining States, 27 ABA J. Lab. & Emp. L. 275 (2010).