Nineteenth Century philosopher Jeremy Bentham designed a prison system known as the Panopticon which was arranged in such a way that a single guard could, at any given time, view the activities and whereabouts of any particular prisoner. Bentham designed the prison in such a way that the prisoners could never tell whether they were being watched. Twentieth Century French philosopher Michel Foucault further considered use of the Panopticon as a means of societal control through fear in his seminal book Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.
Steven B. Toeniskoetter,
Preventing A Modern Panopticon: Law Enforcement Acquisition Of Real-Time Cellular Tracking Data,
Rich. J.L. & Tech
Available at: http://scholarship.richmond.edu/jolt/vol13/iss4/3